What Is Cell Culture?

Cell culture refers to the process used by researchers to grow cells under controlled conditions in a laboratory setting. Researchers can subsequently maintain them under carefully controlled conditions once isolation of the cells of interest from a living tissue has been done.

Providing optimum conditions is essential for the growth of cell cultures. Researchers use cell culture plates (also known as Petri dishes) in laboratories to ensure this. Typically, these are transparent plates allowing visual examination. You can find these plates in V-shaped, round, or flat shapes. Lids are often attached to them, protecting sample contents from leakage, impurity, and evaporation during the examination, storage, or incubation.

This blog lets you know about cell culture and its advantages and applications.

Cell Culture – A Brief

Cell culture is a technique by which the cells are removed from a living organism and grown in a favorable environment. Researchers may remove the cells from the tissue directly and separate them using mechanical techniques before cultivation. They may also derive them from a cell line or cell strain that has already been established. This technique is often used in laboratories for diagnosing infections and testing new drugs.

The cells derived from an organism are placed in a fluid medium. The growth of cells takes the form of cell division (mitosis). It may also take other processes like differentiation when you get particular types of cells after their transformation. These types have similar functional capabilities as in organs or tissues in the whole original organism.

The Cell Culture History

Ross Harrison developed the first cell culture techniques in vitro during the first decade of the 21st century. Vitro study occurs in a controlled environment, like cell-culture plates. Subsequently, Burrows and Carrel brought improvement to cell cultures developed by Harrison. These researchers, among others, also designed the basic principles for plant and animal cell cultures in vitro. They also established human diploid cell lines in the mid‐twentieth century. Researchers also produced the first therapeutic proteins using mammalian cell cultures based on knowledge about the cell cycle and gene expression regulation. 

The end of the 20th century and the early 21st century were eras of further progress because 3‐D cell culture technology emerged. This progress also resulted in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine development.

The Advantages Of Cell Culture

Here are some advantages of the cell culture technique over experiments with the whole organism:

  • Cell culture is a cost-effective technique since researchers can carry out it in vitro (such as in cell culture plates and culture flasks). 
  • Unlike Vivo techniques that require a whole organism, small portions of reagents and media are necessary when applying this technique in vitro.
  • Due to the favorable controlled environment for the cells’ growth in vitro, homogenous cells are produced.
  • Researchers can study and manipulate the physiology and biochemistry of cells in vitro.
  • Unlike the experimentation in which a whole animal is used, there is no legal and ethical issue when using cell culture techniques.
  • When using a flask/dish, cells can be exposed directly to chemicals or drugs.
  •  When using a flask/dish, cells can be exposed directly to chemicals or drugs.

Applications Of Cell Culture

There are various applications for cell culture. For example, viral vaccines and other biotechnological products are produced using the mass culture of animal cells. Cells can be differentiated into the different somatic cell types using the culture of stem cells derived from the human. These somatic cells (the cells other than sperm and egg cells called germ cells) and other substances released by stem cells can be used in transplants and therapeutic purposes, respectively.

Cell culture is also best for cellular agriculture. Cellular agriculture is a process by which animal-based products are produced from cell cultures rather than directly from animals. The products produced by this process include milk, cultured or cultivated meat, perfumes, and even rhino horn. Even there is no need to kill the animal. 

Cellular agriculture is an excellent animal-free agriculture trend and a promising technology in many areas, including food science, nutrition, and environmental science.

Final Words

We hope this blog will help you know well about the cell culture, its advantages, and some promising applications.

MPB INC strives to keep our readers informed about everything they need to know. And if you are looking for high-quality molecular bioproducts like cell culture plates, we also provide the best products in the industry at very competitive rates. Contact us right now!

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