There is no need to mention the fact that the world is suffering from the consequences of pandemics. The Optical Adhesive Films have helped scientists to know a great detail about COVID-19. So far, it has been established that COVID-19 is a virus caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It enters the human cell with the help of its spike protein, and once it has entered, it injects virus-neutralizing antibodies. In the following blog, we would explore how a human host cell is sensitive to respond to the spike protein of the virus, which continues to exhibit cell signaling.
It is also imperative to note that spike protein produced by the emerging vaccines also significantly affects the host cells. Thus, we should meticulously monitor the long-term repercussions or consequences of these vaccines, especially when these vaccines are administered to absolutely healthy individuals. Furthermore, we should also discern the effects of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on average human cells.
The repercussions by COVID-19
Sophisticated biological techniques using VTM Kits have made researchers understand SARS-CoV-2 uses membrane-bound protein to fuse with the human cell membrane. This phenomenon is called spike protein, and it occurs so the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) could become the receptor before entering the human host cell. This result causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia. The repercussions of COVID-19 are more highlighted in elderly patients, to the degree that it sometimes leads to death. Although healthy and young people are resistant to any severe symptoms, the virus affects indirectly by disrupting their lifestyle. Not to mention, the COVID-19 has caused major sociological and economic problems. Thus the world awaits to see the wonder vaccines are expected to do.
The structure of COVID-19
Several studies on Viral Transport Media have declared that the spike protein that we now deem as COVID 19 consists of two subunits, i.e. Subunit 1 (S1) and Subunit 2 (S2). Subunit 1 is composed of the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which forms an attachment ACE2 in the host cell membrane. Then comes the second subunit, whose chief purpose is to facilitate the fusion.
The development of vaccines based on Spike Protein.
Usually, scientific research is hampered by government policies and the lack of funds provided by it. However, since COVID-19 has wreaked havoc everywhere, most countries have effectively collaborated with private sectors. As a result, incredibly rapid development was observed in regards to vaccines and therapeutics for COVID-19. On the particular day of 9 November 2020, BioNTech and Pfizer heralded that the mRNA-based vaccine is 90% effective against the virus.
This news is highly welcomed as it reveals that it won’t be too long before the vaccines would hit the market and distribute among commoners. The BNT162b2 encodes the spike protein (SARS-CoV-2). This is done to elicit virus-neutralizing antibodies. We would see that it encodes the complete length of spike protein SARS-CoV-2 with two amino acids if we take things more precisely. The amino acids were mutated to proline in the S2 subunit, and this is done to maintain the perfusion conformation.
Meanwhile, the sister vaccine BNT162b, which is also one of the derivatives of Pfizer/BioNTech, encodes the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein solely. Scientists have performed several clinical trials on this, and they concluded that neither BNT162b12 [9, 10] nor BNT162b1  demonstrate serious adverse effects.
On December 10, 2020, the results of a massive clinical trial for BNT162b were published. The results revealed that the vaccine confers 95% protection in young individuals of 16 years of age or a bit older. The long-term consequences of the vaccines are still a mystery to scientists, and they are struggling to find out more about it.
SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Eliciting the Cell Signaling in Humans
Through research, it was found that the treatment cultures the primary human pulmonary artery and the muscle cells. This is done with the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit, and it is deemed sufficient for the promotion of cell signals without the other viral components. Moreover, the postmortem analysis showed the wall thickening of pulmonary vascular. This is the hallmark of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) .
Suzuki, Y. J., & Gychka, S. G. (2011, Jan 11). SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Elicits Cell Signaling in Human Host Cells: Implications for Possible Consequences of COVID-19 Vaccines. PMC US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827936/