Role Of Gut Microbiome In Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes


When we talk about microbiome, this is linked with the pathophysiology of some very severe diseases, and type 2 diabetes is also a part of this. There are clear pieces of evidence available that show the effect of microbiota on the glucose metabolism process of healthy animals as well as those that had type 2 diabetes and were tested in clinics. This is why scientists and doctors are very much interested in using microbiota in clinical uses to understand type 2 diabetes and also treat it. In past times, all the literature of microbiome related to T2D showed unstable results and there was a lot of variability in the results. There are various species and ranks among species that are linked with type 2 diabetes in other studies. Moreover, one study suggested that several microbes are found to be related to similar metabolic results in different geographic locations. However, in any emerging field of science, differences and discrepancies always arise, and it’s important to focus on the aspects of literature that are strong. (Gurung, et al., 2020)


Bacteria That Affects The Type 2 Diabetes

There were around 42 observational studies conducted on humans that worked on finding the working of the bacterial microbiome and the T2D. Most of these studies resulted in showing relations between a specific species and disease. However, very few studies had the same results. Some common bacteria that were found to be positively associated with the T2D were Ruminococcus, Fusobacterium, and Blautia, whereas the ones that had no association with T2D were Roseburia, Bacteroides, and the Akkermansia. 

The genus, Bifidobacterium has been consistently named in several studies to be the one that contains microbes that are potentially safe from T2D. This is why mostly all the studies have reported a negative link between this genus and type 2 Diabetes (Sedighi, et al., 2017) that had some sort of positive links in treatments. Also, there are studies that reported a negative relationship between particular species like the B.bifidium, B. pseudocatenulatum, and B. dentium and the disease in patients that were given treatment with metformin. Some of these patients were also tested after they underwent gastric bypass surgery. (Wu, et al., 2017). Animal studies have strengthened the prospect that Bifidobacterium which is found in human gut plays a vital role in the protection against T2D. This is because almost every other animal studies that investigated different species from this genus depicted enhancement of glucose tolerance.

The bacteria Roseburia, Faecalibacterium, and Akkermansia were not found to be present in many studies as much as Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides were seen. 42 different studies were investigated, but those genera did not have any association with the T2D in humans. 

Five studies that tested cases suggested that Roseburia was there in lower quantities in the Type 2 diabetes group as compared to in healthy cases. In accordance, there were other investigations carried out that were able to reveal that Roseburia had negative relationships with the disease. 

Type 1 Diabetes And Gut Microbiota

Type 1 diabetes is a disease that generates automatically and is characterized by the reaction of T cell-mediated eradication of the pancreatic beta cells that are responsible for producing insulin. These cells are found in the islets of Langerhans, which contributes to about 10% of diabetes cases. This type of diabetes is found in monozygotic twins, but less than 50% had developed Type 1 diabetes. This is a strong suggestion that any factors that are non-genetic can regulate the development of type 1 diabetes. Accordingly, the gut microbiota has been studied by many and its found to have a vital role in the development of this disease. Since these evidences have been growing, it proves that gut microbiota can also cause a prominent change in the shape of mucosal immunity in various ways. For instance, it contributes to the generation of gut-related lymphoid tissues, improving the adaptive immune response to germs and bacteria, overall in reducing pathogens. However, other diseases like bowel problems caused by inflammation and auto-immune issues in the human body can be caused by imbalances and changed gut microbiota. 

Multiple studies have confirmed the relationship between Type 1 diabetes and gut microbiota dysbiosis. One of the most common bacterial changes in the type 1 diabetes patients was compared to healthy individuals and it was found that these patients had Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Faecalibacterium.

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