Essential Hypertension happens to be the most preventable cause of death in recent times. Epidemiological studies have suggested that physical exertion and exercise reduces blood pressure for people who are hypertensive or even healthy. Various other researches have shown evidence that DNA methylation plays its role in changing the phenotype and vascular function when responding to environmental stimuli.
The link between essential hypertension and heart diseases is proven in many studies. People who have blood pressure higher than 180/110 mmHg are at an increased risk of suffering from coronary heart issues as compared to people whose blood pressures are noted below 120/80 mmHg.
According to some expert, 1.5 billion people by the year 2025 will be struck by essential hypertension, which will cause a big impact on public health. For this reason, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a 25% relative reduction in the uprising of hypertension in general public. This will play a vital role in reducing the global burden of diseases.(Diem, et al. 2016)
Essential hypertension is a multifactorial condition. The severity of this condition is influenced by the dynamic interactions among environmental factors and genetics. A lot of studies have proved that increased physical exertion has a great impact on improved blood pressure. On the other hand, sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of various negative health conditions, which includes heart issues and also shortens life expectancy. A plethora of intervention researches that been conducted support the role of physical exertion in modulating and enhancing blood pressure.
Training and exercising reduces blood pressure levels, which improves endothelial function pressure in patients who are hypertensive. It also occurs in healthy individuals. The mechanism of enhancement in endothelial function during physical exertion is yet to be clarified. However, it is believed that frequent aerobic exercise plays a vital role in reducing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and also boosts nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability.
Furthermore, environmental exposure and other lifestyle factors have their impact on the genome when they induce epigenetic modifications. This is why the epigenetic determinants are important. It was also reported that any condition that is influenced by epigenetics can be easily reversed by making distinct lifestyle choices. Additionally, a prospective study on aging was done in the Boston region where the levels of leukocyte long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) methylation predicts upcoming risks of ischemic heart problems and stroke.
The main objective of this research was to examine the impact of three-month controlled aerobic physical exercise on DNA methylation. DNA methylation was measured in consecutive elements (ALU & LINE -1 sequences) along with other specific genes that were selected for the significant role they play in inflammation and hypertension development processes. These processes include endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), endothelin 1 (EDN1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF).
This research is said to provide valuable biological bases along with informative molecular makers for helping in crucial interpretation of medical studies that prove aerobic physical activity is potentially able to cut down the risk of heart or cardiovascular issues in the general public. (ferrari, et al. 2019)
Diem, Brownson, Grabauskas, Shatchkute, and Stachenko. 2016. “Prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases through evidence-based public health: implementing the NCD 2020 action plan.” Glob Health Promot 5-13.
ferrari, Luca, Marco Vicenzi, Letizia Tarantini, Francesco Barretta, Silvia Sironi, Andrea, Marco Guazzi, and Valentina Bollati. 2019. “Effects of Physical Exercise on Endothelial Function and DNA Methylation.” Int J Environ Res Public Health.