Tissue culture is a biological research method that involves transferring fragments of tissue from an animal or plant to an artificial environment where they can survive and function. Tissue culture plates, such as a 96-Well Plate, are used for this.
A single cell, a population of cells, or an entire or part of an organ can be cultured tissue. In culture, cells can multiply, change size, shape, or function, perform specialized activity (for example, muscle cells can contract), and interact with other cells. Continue reading for some fascinating tissue culture information.
Details about Tissue Culture
In 1885, Wilhelm Roux, a German zoologist, attempted tissue culture for the first time, cultivating tissue from a chick embryo in a warm salt solution. The first significant breakthrough, however, occurred in 1907, when American zoologist Ross G. Harrison experimented with the growth of frog nerve cell processes in a medium of clotted lymph.
Following Harrison’s technique, French surgeon Alexis Carrel and his assistant Montrose Burrows improved on it, publishing their preliminary findings in a series of papers published between 1910 and 1911. Carrel and Burrows coined and defined tissue culture. Following that, many scientists successfully cultured animal cells using a variety of biological fluids as culture media, including lymph, blood serum, plasma, and tissue extracts. (Britannica)
In the 1980s and 1990s, researchers were able to successfully grow mammalian embryonic stem cells under artificial conditions thanks to the development of methods.
Cells can be grown in either a biologically defined culture medium, such as blood serum or tissue extract, or a chemically defined synthetic medium, or a combination of the two. A medium must have the proper nutrient proportions for the cells being studied, as well as being acidic or alkaline. Cultures are typically grown as single layers of cells on Tissue Culture Plates made of glass or plastic, or as suspensions in a liquid or semi-solid medium.
To begin a culture, a tiny sample of the tissue is dispersed on or in the medium, and the flask, tube, or plate containing the culture is then incubated, usually at a temperature close to the tissue’s normal environment. Sterile conditions are maintained to prevent microorganism contamination. Cultures are sometimes started from single cells, resulting in the formation of clones, which are biological populations that are uniform. When single cells are placed in culture conditions, they usually form colonies within 10 to 14 days.(Britannica)
Processing Of Cultured Cells And Tissues
Live cultures can be examined using a microscope directly or through photographs and motion pictures taken with the microscope. For further research, cells, tissues, and organs can all be killed, fixed (preserved), and stained. Following fixation, samples can be embedded (for example, in resin) and cut into thin sections for examination under a light or electron microscope to reveal additional details.
Tissue culture cells are subjected to a number of different experimental treatments. Viruses, drugs, hormones, vitamins, disease-causing microorganisms, or chemicals suspected of causing cancer, for example, may be added to the culture. The cells are then examined by scientists for changes in cell behaviour or function, as well as changes in specific molecules, such as changes in the expression of a specific protein or gene.
Tissue culture has aided in the understanding of a wide range of biological phenomena. Tissue culture research has aided in the diagnosis of infections, enzyme deficiencies, and chromosomal abnormalities, as well as tumour classification and the development and testing of drugs and vaccines.
Since it was discovered that certain viruses grow in tissue culture, the technique has been used to create vaccines for poliomyelitis, influenza, measles, mumps, and other infectious diseases. In cell cultures, viral inhibitors such as interferon have also been produced. Hormones can also be created using cell or organ cultures.
Cultured white blood cells from two people can be used to determine the compatibility of potential donors and recipients of tissue transplants. By removing and culturing cells from a pregnant woman, it is possible to determine whether her foetus has certain chromosomal defects, such as those associated with Down syndrome and other trisomies. (Britannica)
To Wrap Up
This was extremely useful tissue culture information that every molecular biologist should be aware of. If you find it useful, please share it with your colleagues in microbiology. Also, MBP INC has tissue culture plates and other testing equipment such as 200ul Filter Tips and serological pipettes available for you.
Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “tissue culture”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 7 Jul. 2015, https://www.britannica.com/science/tissue-culture. Accessed 8 March 2022.