Molecular biology, much like any other field, is evolving every single day, giving room to new and better techniques. While some are quickly adaptable and implemented in various applications, others take time and effort on the part of molecular biologists.
Overall, you can expect the new advancements to either improve already developed techniques, just like filter tips for Beckman did, or help resolve old questions by developing new approaches. This will ultimately generate information in a much easier, quicker, and more accurate way.
Now we will be sharing some of the advancements made in the field of molecular biology along with new and improved techniques biologists are employing in their everyday applications.
1. PCR Technology
While PCR Technology has been available for biomedical research since the 1980s, the new and improved one offers the user extreme sensitivity. This is very helpful when it comes to the detection and analysis of low abundance DNAs. You will find it to be valuable when you online have limited copies available of the target sequence or a small number of starting materials present.
Now the applications of PCR include the cloning of novel and known DNA and cDNA sequences, construction of chimeric or mutant DNAs, DNA sequencing, and quantification of DNA and mRNA, to name a few.
2. Difference Analysis
The key to understanding aetiology, pathogenesis, or even the response of a disease to treatment is difference analysis. There have been numerous early approaches to this but it is easily achieved now due to the advanced tools. Simply by examining the mRNA differences you’ll be able to achieve difference analysis. Plus, it is substantially simpler to recognize the differential expression of genes rather than the expression of a protein in tissues containing the disease.
In the beginning, the differential analysis of mRNA mainly relied on subtractive hybridization, which is basically an approach to detect the expression of a number of genes, but it was extremely time-consuming and required a lot of effort. Although with the new method, pretty much everything is automated.
3. Microarray Analysis
In contrast to the above-mentioned techniques, DNA chip technologies used in microarray expression analysis let you conduct parallel analysis of various mRNAs and provide expression measurements on predetermined sets of genes. Target oligonucleotides or cDNAs are often arrayed and deposited onto support matrices such as silicon chips, nylon filters, or microscope slides using chip methods. (Robinson)
The overall hybridization of the array offers a picture of the comparative message levels for the represented gene.
4. Antisense Technology
Recently, a variety of brand-new molecular tools have been created with the intention of preventing certain molecules from functioning in vivo. Humanized monoclonal antibodies, small molecule receptor antagonists, and cellular adhesion inhibitors are a few of these. The epigenetic reluctance of signals in lung disorders is covered in this section using allergic disease as a paradigm. Overall, antisense oligonucleotides are used in this method of genetic translation modification to reduce protein products.
These brief oligonucleotides have been altered to slow disintegration and encode peptides that complement the DNA’s non-coding strand. They form a “translational arrest” when they are delivered into the cell, where they combine the messenger RNA to stop the creation of the protein. There are various benefits of antisense technology, including high specificity, local delivery to the lung, lower production costs, and the absence of systemic side effects.
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