Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made copies of immune system proteins that can bind to specific targets on cells. It typically targets a disease-causing organism. The unpinned concept of this treatment received the Nobel prize for providing the theoretical basis for immunology. Later, the production of monoclonal antibodies is rooted in the production of hybridomas.
Benefits of monoclonal antibodies:
- Targeted therapy:mAbs can be designed to bind specifically to certain proteins or cells, allowing for highly targeted treatment of diseases. It helps to recover the cells in a more rapid way.
- Immune system modulation:mAbs can be used to modulate the immune system, for example, by blocking the activity of specific immune cells or molecules.
- Reduced side effects:mAbs are highly specific, so they may produce fewer side effects than traditional therapies.
- Cancer treatment:mAbs are used to treat different types of cancer by inhibiting the growth and spread of cancer cells.
- Easy to deliver:mAbs are large proteins that are easy to give to the body via injection or infusion.
- COVID-19 treatment: Monoclonal antibodies are used as a treatment for COVID-19 by blocking the virus from entering cells of the body, thus preventing the disease
How are monoclonal antibodies used during the procedure:
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system’s ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses or cancer cells. Some examples of mAbs that have been approved for use in humans include rituximab, adalimumab, and trastuzumab(Herceptin).
- One-way mAbs are used is in cancer treatment. They can be used to target and destroy cancer cells directly by binding to specific antigens on the surface of the cells. This can be done through intravenous infusion or injection into a particular body area. Additionally, mAbs can also be used to block the growth and spread of cancer cells by inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels that the cancer cells need to survive.
- Another way mAbs are used is in autoimmune disorders treatment. They can be used to reduce inflammation and the overactive immune response that causes damage to healthy cells and tissues. They are also used to block the activity of certain proteins that play a role in the development of autoimmune disorders.
- It can be used to neutralize and eliminate pathogens such as viruses in infectious disease treatment. This can be done by binding to and inactivating a viral surface protein, preventing the virus from entering and infecting host cells.
- mAbs are also used in diagnostic procedures to detect the presence of specific antigens or antibodies in a sample. To handle this delicate sample, pipettes such as 200ul low retention filters are sometimes used to ensure minimal sample loss.
Monoclonal antibodies proceedings:
The procedure of monoclonal antibodies involves:
- Identification of the antigen of interest: This is the substance that the monoclonal antibody will target.
- Animal immunization: The animals are typically mice or rats injected with the antigen to generate an immune response.
- Isolation: The B-cells, which produce antibodies, are isolated from the animals’ spleens or lymph nodes.
- Fusion: The B-cells are fused with myeloma cells, a type of cancer cell, to create hybridoma cells. These cells are immortal and can continue to produce large amounts of the same antibody.
- Selection and screening: The hybridoma cells are screened to identify those that produce the desired monoclonal antibody.
- Cloning and expansion: The selected hybridoma cells are cloned to produce many cells with the monoclonal antibody. It required cell culture flasks like T-75 or T25 for cell production.
- Purification of a monoclonal antibody: The monoclonal antibody is purified from the culture supernatant of the hybridoma cells.
- Characterization of a monoclonal antibody: It is characterized using techniques, e.g. ELISA, to confirm its specificity and activity.
In summary, monoclonal antibodies are a valuable tool in disease treatment. They are specific and targeted, which means that they can be used to treat particular conditions without causing harm to healthy cells. As research continues, mAbs will likely be used to treat an even greater variety of diseases and conditions in the future.
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